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Do you know why we warm up?

According to Hoffman (2002) the goal of a warm up is to prepare the athlete mentally and physically for exercise and competition. A warm up should increase muscle temperature, core temperature, blood flow (McArdle, Katch and Katch, 2001), while also disrupt transient connective tissue bonds (Enoka, 2002)

Jeffreys (2007) found that a warm up can have a positive effect on performance through:

  1. Faster muscle contraction and relaxation of both the agonist and antagonist muscles.

  2. Improvements in rate of force development and reaction time. 

  3. Improvements in muscle strength and power.

  4. Lowered viscous resistance in muscles.

  5. Improved oxygen delivery due to the Bohr effect. 

  6. Increased blood flow to active muscles.

  7. Enhanced metabolic reactions. 

  8. Maybe, reduction in injury (limited evidence). 

We Recommend Following The RAMP Protocol.

Jeffreys (2007) created a “RAMP” system that provides a method by which warm-up activities can be classified and constructed. This system identifies three key phases of effective warm-ups.
1. Raise
2. Activate and Mobilise
3. Potentiate


Key Aim:

Elevate body temperature,  heart rate, respiratory rate, blood flow and joint viscosity via low intensity exercise.

Consider warm up games to make more enjoyable 


Key Aim:

Activate key muscle groups, depends on the individual

Should include prehab work, such as rotator cuff, glute bridges and overhead squats.


Key Aim: 

Mobilise key joints and range of motion used in the sport. Consider movement patterns used in the sport, such as dynamic movements such as lunges with a twist.


Key aim:

Activities that improve effectiveness. 

Should include shadow boxing, light pad work, and bag work. 

Head, Shoulders Knees and Toes Reaction Game

Rugby Tag Warm Up

Skipping Drills, Competition

Tiggy Scarecrow


  1. Enoka, RM. (2002) Neuromechanics of Human Movement. Champaign Ill: Human Kinetics

  2. Jeffreys, I. (2007). Warm-up revisited: The ramp method of optimizing warm-ups. Professional Strength and Conditioning. (6) 12-18.

  3. Hoffman, J (2002) Physiological Aspects of Sport Training and Performance. Human Kinetics.

  4. McArdle WD., Katch FI., and Katch VL., (2001) Exercise Physiology: Energy, Nutrition and Human Performance (Fifth Ed) Baltimore: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins. 

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